Thursday, April 11, 2013

The Anatomy of the Planet Earth, and Electromagnetic/Gravitation Energy (EMGE)

I have been involved with geophysics, global warming, and climate change since July-1983. I am not an over night expert, and I take my work very seriously.  Crude oil, and natural gas (O&G) was not created to fuel our automobiles, it was created to fuel this planet. Global warming is caused by the earth's orbit around the sun destabilizing, and greenhouse gases are not to blame. The Earth uses crude oil, and natural gas to sustain the high temperature, and pressures in the mantle, and core, which generates the Earth's electromagnetic/gravitational energy (EMGE). Crude oil, and natural gas are abiotic, and was placed in the Earth during its construction, before plants, insects, animals, and human was placed on earth's surface. Earth orbit around the sun is destabilizing due to its weakening EMGE. Crude oil, and natural gas should remain underground, and  under pressure. The assertion that crude oil, and natural gas has no purpose other, than fueling our cars, and industries is a lie. Beware of people with an economic conflict of interest, where crude oil, and natural gas is concern. These people are without scruples, or respect for life. 

Please keep an eye on this particular anomaly. As of 2014 I'm 61 years old. When I was a young boy I could remember that the hottest part of the day was always twelve noon, now the hottest part of the day is late in the after noon around 3 to 4 o'clock PM, when it should begin to get cooler.  As the earth orbit decays it will continue to be hot later, and later in the after noon, and evening.

There are people that don't want you to know earth's orbit around the sun, and the moon is decaying, so they will lie, and say earth orbit around the moon, and sun isn't decaying. Please don't truth these people. Yes, they have degrees in science, but that has nothing to do with them being honest people, or not, don't truth them.

People take the earth’s EMGE for granted, because earth's EMGE is invisible, and silent.  These three energies are similar in anyways, they function in unison, and one can't exist without the other. These three elements are like water, and ice, they are the same element, but in different forms.The earth's EMGE protects all life on the surface of this planet from the sun by holding the earth in a stable orbit around the sun, and holds the moon in a stable around the earth. It protect life on this planet from deadly high velocity solar winds. If it wasn’t for the magnetic, electromagnetic, and gravitational fields the sun's solar winds, which can reach speeds of a million mile per hour would pushed Mercury, Venus, Earth, and Mars out of their orbits, and without the earth's EMGE these planets would be pulled into the sun, by the sun's gravity. All life, and structures on earth's surface would be swept away into space.

The solar winds are made up of electrons, protons, neutrons, ions, plasma, which is similar to liquified gas, and these elements does have mass. The solar winds also charges the earth ionosphere, and is responsible for thunderstorm, tornadoes, hurricanes, etc, these are all EMGE phenomenon. The earth's EMGE also protect life from the harshness of space, and It performs several other functions. It holds this planet together, holds life, objects, and the ocean to the surface of this planet. It retains the air we breathe, and keep it from escaping into space, it protects life on this planet from solar flares, deadly radiation,poisonous gases, and the vacuum of space. The  thirteen deadly anomalies below proves earth's orbit around the sun is destabilizing. These anomalies are in the beginning stages, and are continuing to progress. I don't know when, or which anomaly will cause death, and destruction first, because they all are increasingly progressing at different rates. All I know is somethings is going wrong with the earth's magnetic, gravitational fields, its orbit around the sun, and moon's orbit around the earth.



(1). Both polar ice caps are melting, and ocean's level are rising.

(2). Winters are getting colder near the arctic circle.

(3).The summers are getting hotter, and is melting both the arctic, and antarctic circle. 

(4). Earth's lower mantle, and core are progressively cooling at an accelerated rate, causing mild volcanic eruptions that occur with less regularity, and causing the earth's EMGE to weaken. 

(5). The earth has developed a breach in its magnetic fields, which protects life on this planet from the environment of space, and solar winds. The earth's magnetic field is showing signs of collapsing.  

(6). The Earth's EMGE has weaken by 10-15% since the 19th century, and is continuing to weaken.

(7). The earth's rotation is continuing to slow down. 

 (8). The moon's orbit around the earth is destabilizing, and the earth's orbit around the sun is also destabilizing.

(9). The drafting of the chandler's wobble from 1909 - 2001. Provided by Michael Wells Mandeville.
Table513_cp_polarmotion1909-2001_min.gif (18426 bytes)

(10).Charts Which Prove That Chandler's Wobble Is Progressively Shifting. Provided by MIT Technology Review.
New analysis shows that the Chandler Wobble in Earth’s axis changed phase by 180 degrees in 2005. The question is why.   The Physics arXiv BlogAugust 31, 2009

(11).The earth's geographical axis has shifted.

(Copy, and Paste)

The info shown on this site is courtesy NASA, USGS, NOAA, NWS, SOHO and your American Tax dollars which fund them.

Normal 23.5 degree tilt



(12). The Earth's EMGE has weakened: The drafting, or reversal of earth's magnetic field, and poles are moving 40 km (24.85 miles) per year from 1831 - 2001.  170 year times 24.88 miles is approximately 4,229 miles (6800 km) movement of Earth's magnetic field, and its progressing.

      Provided by NASA.

 see caption 

(13). The earth's EMGE has shifted on earth's axis is moving in the same direction..The earth's magnetic EMGE is showing signs of weakening, and reversing, and it also coincides with the shift of Earth's axis. Earth's Magnetic Field Is Fading. Provided by National Geographic - September 9, 2004. The Earth's Magnetic fields appear to be reversing.Today it is about 10-15 percent weaker than it was when German mathematician Carl Friedrich Gauss started keeping tabs on it in 1845, scientists say. If the trend continues, the field may collapse altogether and then reverse. 
This has not occurred before. 


The pathways of a crude oil, and natural gas wells extends from the crust down to the lower mantle, and the pathways of a volcano extends from the lower mantle up to the surface of earth. Crude oil, and natural gas is forced into the mantle, and lower mantle, and enters the lower mantle as flames, heat , and pressure, which is the cause for volcanic eruption. The crude oil, and natural gas is ignited by the residual high temperatures in the lower mantle.  The lower mantle heats  the outer core, and the outer core heats the inner core, and the inner core generates earth's magnetic, and gravitational fields. One of the components of crude oil, and natural gas is oxygen, so ignition of crude oil, and natural gas is possible. Our atmosphere is derived through volcanic eruptions. The air we breathe originate from the mantle, and lower mantle. If the high temperature in the core is sustained by a nuclear dynamo-process, then why is there little to no radiation discharged during volcanic eruptions. Only low levels of non-fission benign, and non-lethal  radioactive ash, gases, and lava are discharged, so the core  could not be sustained by nuclear dynamo-process, there's no radiation to speak of. All volcanic discharge (lava, gases, etc) contain crude oil, and natural gas residue

Volcanoes, and Super volcanoes terraformed this planet billions of years ago by the release of oxygen, and other gases into Earth's atmosphere.  All gases in Earth's atmosphere originated from within the mantle of this planet, and are separated according to their atomic weight within earth's atmosphere. The gases discharged from volcanoes are trapped in Earth's atmosphere by the Earth's magnetic field, then life was brought to this planet, plants, insect, animals, then humans. None of these species can survive without oxygen.

The principal components of volcanic gases are made up of  crude oil, and natural gas by-products:  high pressures,  high temperatures, water vapor (H2O), oxygen (O2), carbon dioxide (CO2), sulfur dioxide (SO2), hydrogen sulfide (H2S),   nitrogen, argon, helium, neon, methane, carbon monoxide and hydrogen. Other compounds detected in volcanic gases are  (meteoric), hydrogen chloride, hydrogen fluoridehydrogen bromide, nitrogen oxide (NOx), sulfur hexafluoride, carbonyl sulfide, and organic compounds. Exotic trace compounds include methylmercury, halocarbons (including CFCs), and halogen oxide radicals. Low levels of benign radiation.

Carbon dioxide, Sulfur Dioxide, Carbon Monoxide, Nitrogen Oxide, and all oxides/oxidizer contains oxygen. All of these oxidizers are components of crude oil, and natural gas, so combustion of crude oil, and natural gas in the mantle is possible.

Oxidizer: a compound in which oxygen is bonded to one or more 
electropositive atoms. Any compound of oxygen with another element. 
Oxygen is just one of any gases within the mantle of this  planet, and is released into the earth's atmosphere during volcanic activity.

Small amounts of  low levels benign non-fission isotopes are discharged from volcano such as unenriched: Uranium-238, plutonium-238, radium-226, potassium-40, thorium-232, polonium-210, Carbon -14 use for carbon dating. The radiation levels are not suitable for fission, or fusion reactors. The high temperature in the core is not sustained by a nuclear dynamo-process. The core uses hydrocarbon to generate heat, and pressure. There is no enriched radioactive isotopes in the core capable of fusion, or fission. The core is not a fusion reactor. 
_ ________________________________
Earth's core, and Nuclear Radiation


(1). Crude oil, and natural gas (O&G) wells are the earth’s fuel system. They are located all around the planet for even heating of the low mantle, and outer core. They forces crude oil, and natural gas down into the  mantle,  where it is ignited. The mantle is saturated with oxygen, and other gases, so the combustion of crude oil, and natural gas in the mantle is possible.

(2)The inner core is the Earth’s engine. It generates the Earth's EMGE. The Earth is a magnetic, and gravity generator, and biosphere.

(3). Volcanoes are the earth's exhaust system, It remove spent fuel, and regulate the pressure in the mantle. Super volcanoes terraformed Earth's atmosphere by the release of air/oxygen, and other gases into the atmosphere. The terraforming of earth's atmosphere was completed before the existence of plants, insects, animals, and humans on this planet. None of these life forms can survive without air/oxygen.

(4). The oceans are the Earth's cooling system.
Without the oceans the core would burn its way through the body of this planet to the surface.

(5). Plants can't create, or manufacture air, or oxygen. Plants absorbs carbon dioxide, and other gases, and  release the oxygen, but there has to be carbon dioxide, and other gases, and oxygen already present. Put large amounts of plants, and a human in a small air tight lighted room with no carbon dioxide, or oxygen. The person inside will suffocate to death from the lack of oxygen in minutes, and the plants will wither, and die.

The earth’s systems functions similar to a internal combustion engine, and not like a nuclear reactor. The gases (oxygen) in our atmosphere originate from mantle, and lower mantle of this planet,and is released during  volcanic eruptions, so the ignition of oil, and gas in the mantle is possible. The air we breathe was here, before plants, insects, animals and humans, because they need air/oxygen to live. The ignition of oil, and gas are responsible for violent volcanic eruptions, and earthquakes.The mantle's high  temperature, and pressures are sustained by the ignition of oil, and gas in the mantle, and lower mantle. There is no proof that the high temperature, and pressures in the mantle, and lower mantle, and outer core are sustained by a nuclear dynamo process. The low levels of benign non-fission nuclear isotopes can't generate heat, nor pressure without being enriched, but crude oil, and natural gas can.

The oil, and gas (O&G) extraction process used by the oil companies prevents O&G from being forced into the  mantle to be ignited by the lower mantle's residual high temperatures, thereby lowering the pressures in crude oil, natural gas wells, and lowering the temperature, and pressure in the mantle. The O&G enter into the lower mantle as flames, heat, and pressure, thereby heating, and pressurizing the mantle, and lower mantle, which heats the inner core, and the inner core generates earth's EMGE. The earth's magnetic, and gravitation field are made up of electrons, protons, and neutrons, and these element has mass.

The lack of O&G into the lower mantle causes the core to cool, and the pressure to drop, and weakens the earth's magnetic field, and gravitational field. Volcanic eruptions are more mild, and occur with more irregularity, than volcanic eruptions in the past. Earth's EMGE are weakening, causing the earth orbit around the sun to destabilize. If the earth magnetic, and gravitational field isn’t stabilize the earth’s orbit around the sun will continue to destabilize. The earth is a magnetic, and gravitational field generator. The earth's magnetic, and gravitational fields, and its orbital velocity around the sun are the mechanisms that keep the earth in a stable orbit around the sun.

 The earth’s lower mantle is being fuel starved from the lack of crude oil, and natural gas, which is causing the temperature, and the pressure in the  mantle, lower mantle , and outer core to drop. As the core cools, and pressure drops the earth’s EMGE will weakens. This is causing the earth's orbit around the sun to destabilize. The high temperature, and pressure in the earth’s mantle is not sustained by decaying nuclear isotopes, or by a nuclear dynamo process. nuclear activity can't generate pressure directly, unless its explodes. The radiation would be so pervasive in the lower mantle, and outer core that it would have made its way to the surface of this planet via volcanic eruptions long ago, and kill all life, and contaminate the air, the water ways, and the land surrounding all volcanoes with deadly radiation. Radiation is deadly to life on this planet, and is absorbed by all elements. Only low level benign non-fission isotopes are discharged from volcanoes. The radiation levels are so small, no radiation protection garments are needed when scientists come in contact with lava, and gases discharged from volcanoes. There has never been any dangerous radioactive fall out from volcanic eruptions. 

How to Reverse Earth's destabilizing, and Decaying orbit around the sun

The only way to reverse global warming is for the oil companies to return the crude oil, and gas back into the ground, and re-pressurize the earth’s fuel systems, because the crude oil, and natural gas extraction process used by the oil companies reduces the pressure in crude oil, and natural gas wells (fuel system).  This can be accomplished by pumping the crude oil, and natural gas back into the ground, and using high volume pumps to pressurize the oil, and/or gas well. The gas in the OIL, and gas wells can be ignited in the crust, causing the gas to explode, and expand, and create the pressure needed to force the remaining crude oil, and natural gas back into the mantle, and/or lower mantle. Air must be pumped into the crude oil, and natural gas well to compensate for a weak artificial ignition source used to ignite the mixture in the oil, and gas well.  The high temperatures in the mantle, and outer core ignites the crude oil, and natural gas, when they come in contact with the high temperatures in the mantle, and lower mantle. Some of the pressure generated by the combustion of oil, and gas is vented out through the earth's volcanic systems, and some of the pressure is used to pressurize earth's crude oil, and natural gas wells.
The more oil, and gas that are forced into the lower mantle, and outer core the higher the temperature, and pressure in the mantle, and outer core, the stronger the earth's EMGE, and the stronger volcanic eruption. When a oil, and gas well becomes over pressurized in the crust an earthquake is generated. The less oil, and gas forced into the lower mantle the lower the temperature, pressure, and the weaker the earth's EMGE, and the weaker volcanic eruptions. The core is cooling slowly, because the core is receiving less fuel, and is surrounded by the best insulation known to man, and that is rock, and soil. It will take many decades for the lower mantle to cool, and to reheat the outer core, and many more decades to reheat the inner core to normal temperatures. Restoring earth's fuel system back to normal pressures will stabilize earth's orbit around the sun, and If not done in time all life on this planet will perish.

Mr. Willie McDonald



Hurricane Suppression, and EMGE:


I apology for the configuration of my R&B its not my fault, its this website. I have no little control over it.


(1). A Breach has developed in Earth'sMagnetic Field:


2.  Dr. Tony Phillips. "Giant Breach in Earth's Magnetic Field Discovered." Science@ NASA. December 16, 2008.

3. The unification theory:

(2). Earth's magnetic, Electromagnetic (ionosphere), and Gravitational fields are weakening

1. Carrigan, C.R. and David Gubbins, "The Source of the Earth's Magnetic Field," SciAmer., Feb. 1979, p. 125.

2. McDonald, K.L. and R.H. Gunst, Earth's Magnetic Field 1835 to 1965, ESSA Tech. Rept. U.S. Dept. Com., 1967, pp. 1 & 5.

3. Lamb, H., Phil. Trans., London V. 174, 1883, pp. 519-549.

4. Barnes, T.G., Creation ResearchSociety Quarterly, Vol. 9 (1), 1972, pp. 

    Dehant V
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    6. Gubbins
  1. Bloxham 
(1987Morphology of the geomagnetic field and implications for the geodynamoNature 325:509511.

(3). Magnetic, Electromagnetic (ionosphere), and Gravitational fields are similar energies. One can't exist without the other:

1. Dumberry M (2010) Gravity variations induced by core flows. Geophys J Int



3. Heaviside, O., "A Gravitational and Electromagnetic Analogy," The Electrician, 31, 281-282 and 359 (1893).

4.  Forward, R.L., "Guidelines to Antigravity," American Journal of Physics, 31, 166-170 (1963).

5.  Forward, R.L., "Guidelines to Antigravity," American Journal of Physics, 31, 166-170 (1963).

6.  Braginski, V.B., Caves, C.M., Thorne, K.S., "Laboratory Experiments to Test Relativity Gravity," Physical Review D, 15(5), 2047-2068 (1977).

7. Baker, Robert Jr., High Frequency Gravity Waves, Max Planck Institute, Munich, Germany, 2002.

8. Cooke, N., The Hunt for Zero Point, Broadway Books, New York, 2001, pp. 182-184, 100-101, 103, 194, 230-231, 103, 260-267.

9. de Aquino, Fran, Gravitational Radiation and Oscillating Dipole, Jean-Louis Naudin Labs, France, 2002

(4). Earth's Geographical poles are shifting:

1. Nature: Chen, J. L.Wilson, C. R.Ries, J. C. & Tapley, B.D. Geophys.Res.Lett. (2013).

2. NATURE/ doi:10.1038/nature.2013.129941

(5). Chandler's Wobble, and the Earth's Geographical poles are one in the same, and are Progressively Shifting:

1. See, e.g., Fig. 2.3. Virtanen, H. (2006). A studies of earth's dynamics with superconducting gravime Academic Dissertation at the University of Helsinki. Retrieved September 21, 2009. Gross, Richard S. (2000). "The Excitation of the Chandler Wobble"Geophysical Research Letters 27 (15): 2329–2332. Retrieved January 17, 2011.

2.  Gibert, D. and J.-L. Le Mou¨el, Inversion of polar motion data: Chandler wobble, phase jumps, and geomagnetic jerks, J. Geophys. Res., 113, B10405, 2008.

3. Chandler Wobble: Fedorov, E. P. and , Ya. S. Yatskiv, The cause of the apparent “bifurcation” of the free nutation period, Soviet Astron., 8, 608–611, 1965 Chandler Wobble: Two More Large Phase Jumps Revealed

5.  Guinot, B., Astron. Astrophys., The Chandlerian Wobble from 1900 to 1970, 19, 207–214,1972, Chandler, S. C., On the variation of the latitude, I, Astron. J., 11, 59–61, 1891a.

6. World Data Center forGeomagnetism, Kyoto"Magnetic North, Geomagnetic and Magnetic Poles". Retrieved 2012-07-03. North Magnetic Pole Moving East Due to Core Flux, National Geographic, December 24, 2009, University of Leicester (UK): Vladimir Shaidurov of the Academy of Science (Russia)

7. Environmental Protection Agency: The Natural Resources Defense Council:

(6). The Earth's rotation is slowly down: 

1. Climate Dynamics Volume 19, Issue 5-6 , pp 467-483;DOI: 10.1007/s00382-002-0238-8

2.ScienceVol. 157 no. 3786 pp. 304-305. DOI: 10.1126/science.157.3786.304

3. Morrison, L.V. and Ward, C. G., "An analysis of the transits of Mercury: 1677-1973", Mon. Not. Roy. Astron. Soc., 173, 183-206, 1975.

4. Dickey, J.O., "Earth Rotation Variations from Hours to Centuries", in: I. Appenzeller (ed.), Highlights of Astronomy: Vol. 10 (Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht/Boston/London, 1995), pp. 17-44.

5. Meeus, J., "The Effect of Delta T on Astronomical Calculations", Journal of the British Astronomical Association, 108 (1998), 154-156.

6. Morrison, L.V. & Stephenson, F.R., "Historical Values of the Earth's Clock Error Delta T and the Calculation of Eclipses", Journal for the History of Astronomy, Vol. 35 Part 3, August 2004, No. 120 (2004), pages 327-336.

(7).  Moon's orbit around the earth is destabilizing



(8). There's Oxygen In The Mantle. the combustion of oil, and gas is possible:

1. Alfe, DGillan, MJPrice, GD; (2007) Temperature and composition of the Earth's core. CONTEMP PHYS , 48 (2) 63 - 80. 10.1080/00107510701529653

3. Stagno VOjwang DOMcCammon CAFrost DJ 2013 Jan 3;493(7430):84-8. doi: 10.1038/nature11679.

4. Journal Of Geology,1989,Vol.97.P521-536

(9). Besides H2O, and O2 Volcanic gases are made up of crude oil, natural gas by-product, which means O&G is being burned in the mantle. 

1.. H. Sigurdsson et al. (2000) Encyclopedia of Volcanoes, San Diego, Academic Press

2.N. Morello (editor) (1998), Volcanoes and History, Genoa, Brigati

3. Royal Society Climate Change Controversies, London, June 2007

4. enneth A. McGee, and Terrence M. Gerlach 1995/ Volcanic Gas: USGS Open
files report -95-85, 2p.

6. Corsi, Dr. J. (2012.) The Great Oil Conspiracy–How the U.S. Government Hid the Nazi Discovery of Abiotic Oil from the American People. New York, N.Y: Skyhorse Publishing.

(10). Earth's core is not a reactor. nor is it's high temperatures sustained by decaying Isotopes. volcanoes would eject the decaying radioactive isotopes during eruptions.

1. Sanders, Robert (2003-12-10). "Radioactive potassium may be major heat source in Earth's core". UC Berkeley News. Retrieved 2007-02-28.

2. Johnston, Hamish (19). "Radioactive decay accounts for half of Earth's heat" Institute of Physics

 3. Nature Geoscience 10.1038/ngeo1205.


(11). The Earth's core is cooling, and this process is accelerating.

1. Bullen, K. E., 1960. In press and personal communication. 

2. Carlson, C. M., Eyring, H. & Taikyue Ree, 1960. Proc. Nut. Acad. Sci., 46,649. 

3. Elsasser, W. M., 1956. Rev. Mod. Phys., 28, 135-163. 

4. Monnereau, Marc; Calvet, Marie; Margerin, Ludovic; Souriau, Annie (May 21, 2010). "Lopsided Growth of Earth's Inner Core". Science328 (5981): 1014–1017. Bibcode:2010Sci...328.1014Mdoi:10.1126/science.1186212PMID 20395477

5.  E. R. Engdahl; E. A. Flynn and R. P. Massé (1974). "Differential PkiKP travel times and the radius of the core". Geophys. J. R. Astr. Soc.40 (3): 457–463. Bibcode:1974GeoJI..39..457Edoi:10.1111/j.1365-246X.1974.tb05467.x.

6. Edmond A. Mathez, ed. (2000). EARTH: INSIDE AND OUT. American Museum of Natural History.

7. John C. Butler (1995). Class Notes - "The Earth's interior." Physical Geology Grade BookUniversity of Houston. Retrieved 30 August 2011.

8. Gilvarry, J., 1957. J. Atm. Tm. Phys., 10, 84-95. 

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10. Reed, G. W., 1959, in Researches in Geochemistry (edit. by P. H. Abelson) (Wiley, 

11. Salter, L., 1954. Phil. Mag., 45, 369-378. 

12. Simon, F., 1953. Nature (Lond.), 172,746. 

13. Strong, H. M., 1959. J. Geophys. Res., 64, 653-660. 

14. Strong, H. M., 1960. Amer. Scientist, 48, 58-79. 

15. Urey, H. C., 1952. The Planets (Yale Univ. Press, New Haven). 

(12). Earthquakes are Generated by the ignition of natural gas, which Generates excess pressure in the crust. The earthquakes generated by fracking backs this theory:

1. Ellsworth, W. L. Science 341, 1225942 (2013).

2. van der Elst, N. J., Savage, H. M., Keranen, K. M. & Abers, G. A. Science 341, 164–167 (2013).

3. Brodsky, E. E. & Lajoie, L. J. Science (2013)

5.  Brodsky, E. E. & Lajoie, L. J. Science (2013).

6.van der Elst, N. J.Savage, H. M.Keranen, K. M. & Abers, G. A. Science 341164167 (2013).

Ellsworth, W. L. Science 341, 1225942 (2013).

(13). The Sun is Responsible for Rise in Surface Temperatures:

1. Science Explorer: Astronomy, Jay M. Pasachoff, Ph.D, Prentice Hall, Inc., Upper Saddle River, N.J., pp. 56-57.

2. Science Explorer: Astronomy, Jay M. Pasachoff, Ph.D, Prentice Hall, Inc., Upper Saddle River, N.J., pp. 57.
3. Freedman, Roger A. & Kaufmann III, Universe: Stars and Galaxies, 7th Ed., W.H. Freeman and Company, New York, 2002, pp. 403-404.

4. Scientists blame sun for global warming, Stanford Solar Center,, p.1

5. Blame Sun for Global Warming, Stanford Solar Center,, p.1

6. Blame the Sun for global warming,

7. Blame Sun for Global Warming, Stanford Solar Center,, p.1

8. U.S. Environment Protection Agency, Global Warming-Climate,

9. pp. 1-2

10. p.1



15., p.2




19., Meeting the Climate Challenge.

20., Meeting the Climate Challenge.

21., Meeting the ClimateChallenge

22., Meeting the Climate Challenge

(14)The Kibo ice cap, a "poster child" of global climate change, is being starved of snowfall and depleted by solar radiation



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     .Gaffen, D. J., B. D. Santer, J. S. Boyle, J. R. 2. Christy, N. E. Graham and R. J. Ross. 2000. Multidecadal changes in the vertical temperature structure of the tropical troposphere. Science 287:1242-1245.

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3. Kaser, G., D. R. Hardy, T. Mölg, R. S. Bradley and T. M. Hyera. 2004. Modern glacier retreat on Kilimanjaro as evidence of climate change: observations and facts. International Journal of Climatology 24:329-339. doi: 10.1002/joc.1008

4. Mölg, T., D. R. Hardy and G. Kaser. 2003. Solar-radiation-maintained glacier recession on Kilimanjaro drawn from combined ice-radiation geometry modeling. Journal of Geophysical Research 108(D23):4731. doi:10.1029/2003JD003546

5. Mölg, T., and D. R. Hardy, 2004. Ablation and associated energy balance of a horizontal glacier surface on Kilimanjaro. Journal of Geophysical Research 109:D16104.

6. Oerlemans, J. 2005. Extracting a climate signal from 169 glacier records. Science 308:675-677.

7. Osmaston, H. 1989. Glaciers, glaciation and equilibrium line altitudes on Kilimanjaro. In Quaternary and Environmental Research on East African Mountains, ed. W. C. Mahaney. Rotterdam: Brookfield, pp. 7-30.

8. Thompson, L. G., E. Mosley-Thompson and K. A. Henderson. 2000. Ice-core paleoclimate records in tropical South America since the Last Glacial Maximum. Journal of Quaternary Science 15:377-394.

9. Thompson, L. G., et al.2002. Kilimanjaro ice core records: Evidence of Holocene climate change in tropical Africa. Science 298:589-593.

10. Trenberth, K. E., et al. 2007. Observations: Surface and atmospheric climate change. Chapter 3 in Climate Change 2007: The Physical Science Basis. Contribution of Working Group 1 to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Cambridge, U.K., and New York: Cambridge University Press.

(15). Falsification Of The Atmospheric CO2 Greenhouse: Effects Within The Frame Of Physics. Provided by Cornell University Library:

115 pages, 32 figures, 13 tables (some typos corrected)
Atmospheric and Oceanic Physics (
Journal reference:
Cite as:
arXiv:0707.1161 []

(or arXiv:0707.1161v4 [] for this version)

3. Environmental effect of Increase Atmospheric Carbon Dioxide by Dr. A.B. Robinson, Dr. N.E. Robinson, and Dr. W. Soon (2007) J. Am. Phy. Sur. 12, 79-90.

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5. Gerhard GerlichRalf D. Tscheuschner(Submitted on 8 Jul 2007 (v1), last revised 4 Mar 2009 (this version, v4))

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