Thursday, April 11, 2013

The Anatomy of the Planet Earth, and Electromagnetic/Gravitational Energy (EMGE)

                                                  Willie McDonald


I have been involved with geophysics, global warming, and climate change since July-1983. I am not an over night expert, and I take my work very seriously.  Crude oil, and natural gas (O&G) was not created to fuel our automobiles, it was created to fuel this planet. Climate change is caused by the earth's orbit around the sun destabilizing, and greenhouse gases are not to blame. Reducing greenhouse gases will only reduce air pollution it will not stop climate change, you have been deceived. The Earth uses O&G, and not nuclear fission to sustain the high temperature, and pressures in the lower mantle. The core generates the Earth's electromagnetic/gravitational energy (EMGE), and its the earth's EMGE that holds moon is a stable orbit around Earth, and the Earth in a stable orbit around the sun. The protons, electron, neutrons of Earth's EMGE  does possess mass, which explain their gravitational  attributes.

The substances, and gases discharged from volcanoes originate from the Earth's lower mantle. The proof O&G is being burned by the high residual temperatures in Earth's lower mantle is large amounts of O&G by-product are being discharged during volcanic eruptions, all around this planet. There is no hazardous enrich radioactive isotopes discharge during volcanic eruptions, only weak background radiation emissions, which proves no nuclear fission is taking place in the lower mantle. O&G wells are also located all around this planet for even heating of the lower mantle, and the core. There are many O&G wells around this planet that has yet to be discovered, mostly in the Southern hemisphere. 

Make no mistake O&G are capable of generating the high temperatures, and high pressures found in the mantle, and lower mantle. If the hydrocarbons coal, crude oil, natural gas can generate high temperatures, and high pressures in an internal combustion engine, jet engines, gas turbines, steel mills, smelting plants, industrial gases such as acetylene, furnaces, boilers, etc, why not the lower mantle? And there is oxygen in the earth's mantle. 

O&G are abiotic, and was placed in the Earth during its construction, before plants, insects, animals, and human was placed on earth's surface. The combustion of hydrocarbons in the lower mantle supplies volcanic pressures, and heat. Earth orbit around the sun is destabilizing due to its weakening EMGE, due to the core cooling. The ridiculous assertion that O&G has no purpose other, than fueling our cars, and industries is a bratant...lie!  

No reputable science journal will publish this article.  Not because it has no substance, because its contradicts the views of American businessmen, and their geophysicists in the O&G industries. They purport, "The high temperatures, and pressures in the lower mantle is sustained by a nuclear dynamo process. O&G was created for no purpose, and taking it from the ground does no harm". The O&G industries has other hypothesis, and mathematical hypothesis on this subject matter.  Where is the hazardous volcanic radiation for the nuclear fission taking place in the lower mantle? There's lots hydrocarbon by-product discharged from volcanoes, but no harmful radiation, which will indicate nuclear, or fission taken place in the lower mantle. I can't match O&G industry's wealthy, or influence. All I ask is for you to analyse the empirical evidence below for yourself, and for your offspring's future, then help me save them.

Earth's orbit around the sun is decaying. Orbital decay is changing Earth's climate for the worse, and will cause unusual seasonal changes, relocation of the oceans, rising oceans, severe weather patterns, food shortages, cannibalism, and eventual the end of all life on Earth. If my instructions are not followed on this blog all life on this planet will suffer, then die.

Keywords: Electromagnetic/Gravitational Energy (EMGE), Orbital Decay, Crude oil, Natural Gas (O&G), O&G By-Product,Volcanoes, Core, Lower Mantle, Upper mantle, Nuclear Dynamo Process, Radiation, Greenhouse Gas, Heat, Pressure, solar Winds, Chandler's wobble, Cannibalism.


People take the earth’s electromagnetic/gravitational energy (EMGE) for granted, because earth's EMGE is invisible, and silent.  These three energies are similar in many ways, they function in unison, and one can't exist without the other. These three elements are like water, and ice, they are the same element, but in different forms.The earth's EMGE protects all life on the surface of this planet from the sun by holding the earth in a stable orbit around the sun, and holds the moon in a stable around the earth. It protect life on this planet from deadly high velocity solar winds. If it wasn’t for EMGE the sun's solar winds, which can reach speeds of a million mile per hour would pushed Mercury, Venus, Earth, and Mars out of their orbits, and without EMGE these planets would be pulled into the sun, by the sun's gravity. All life, the air we breathe, the oceans, and structures on earth's surface would be swept away into space.

(1-A).  (CLICK)

The solar winds are made up of electrons, protons, neutrons, ions, plasma, which is similar to liquified gas, and these elements does have mass. The solar winds also charges the earth ionosphere, and is responsible for thunderstorm, tornadoes, hurricanes etc, these are all EMGE phenomenon. Earth's also generate electrical energy. Its EMGE brushes against the EMGE of space, and charges Earth's ionosphere with electricity. The earth's EMGE also protect life from the harshness of space. It holds this planet together, holds life, objects, and the ocean to the surface of this planet. It retains the air we breathe, and keep it from escaping into space, it protects life on this planet from solar flares, deadly radiation, poisonous gases, and the vacuum of space. 

The  twelve deadly anomalies below proves earth's orbit around the sun is destabilizing. These anomalies are in the beginning stages, and are continuing to progress slowly. I don't know when, or which anomaly will cause death, and destruction first, because they all are progressing at different rates. The progression of these twelve anomalies should be measured by 100 years intervals. Somethings is going wrong with the earth's EMGE, its orbit around the sun, and moon's orbit around the earth. Action is required, before its to late.



(1). The earth's rotation is continuing to slow down.

(2). The moon's orbit around the earth is destabilizing. 

(3)The summers are getting hotter in the northern hemisphere, but not in the Southern hemisphere.

(4).The ice in the arctic circle is melting, but not in the antarctic circle. 

(5). Sea levels are rising.

(6). Please keep an eye on this particular anomaly. As of 2014 I'm 61 years old. When I was a young boy I remember that the hottest part of the day was always twelve noon, now the hottest part of the day is late in the after noon around 3 to 5 o'clock PM, when it should begin to get cool.  As the earth orbit decays it will continue to be hot later, and later in the after noon, and evening.

(7). Earth's lower mantle, and core are progressively cooling at an accelerated rate, causing mild, and irregular volcanic eruptions, and causing the earth's EMGE to weaken. 

(7-A). Bullen, K. E., 1960. In press and personal communication 

(7-B). Alfe, DGillan, MJPrice, GD; (2007) Temperature and composition of the Earth's core. CONTEMP PHYS , 48 (2) 63 - 80


(8). The earth has developed a breach (hole) in its magnetic field, which protects life on this planet from the environment of space, and solar winds. The earth's magnetic field, or shield is showing signs of collapsing.  


             (9).  The earth's orbit around the sun is decaying.                                          
                            Provided by: Michael Mandeville, and MIT.

Table513_cp_polarmotion1909-2001_min.gif (18426 bytes)

fig-2: The Earth's axis has shifted 180 degrees.

(9-A). Figure 1-2: Charts Which Prove That Chandler's Wobble Is Progressively Shifting. New analysis shows that the Chandler Wobble in Earth's axis changed phase by 180 degrees in 2005.  
(9-B).   The Physics arXiv BlogAugust 31, 2009 (click)
 (9-C)   (CLICK)



(10). The earth's orbit around the sun is decaying.
                    Provided by: NASA, and Nature Magazine 

(10-A). Figure 1: The earth's geographical pole is shifting beyond its normal position.




(11).The drafting, or reversal of earth's magnetic field, and poles are moving 40 km (24.85 miles) per year from 1831 - 2001.  170 year times 24.88 miles is approximately 4,229 miles (6800 km) movement of Earth's magnetic field, and its progressing. 
                                                    Provided by: NASA

see caption 


(11-A). Figure 1: The Earth's EMGE has weakened: 



(12).   Earth's Magnetic Field Is Fading.  The Earth's Magnetic fields appear to be reversing.Today it is about 10-15 percent weaker than it was when German mathematician Carl Friedrich Gauss started keeping tabs on it in 1845

 Provided by: National Geographic-September 9, 2004

(12-A). figure 1-3:  Earth's Magnetic Field Is Fading.  


figure 1: The pathways of a crude oil, and natural gas wells extends from the crust down to the lower mantle, and the pathways of a volcano extends from the lower mantle up to the surface of earth. Crude oil, and natural gas is forced into the mantle, and lower mantle, and enters the lower mantle as flames, heat , and pressure, which is the cause for volcanic eruption. The crude oil, and natural gas is ignited by the residual high temperatures in the lower mantle.  The lower mantle heats  the outer core, and the outer core heats the inner core, and the inner core generates earth's magnetic, and gravitational fields. One of the components of crude oil, and natural gas is oxygen, so ignition of crude oil, and natural gas is possible. Our atmosphere is derived through volcanic eruptions. The air we breathe originate from the mantle, and lower mantle. If the high temperature in the core is sustained by a nuclear dynamo-process, then why is there little to no radiation discharged during volcanic eruptions. Only low levels of non-fission benign, and non-lethal  radioactive ash, gases, and lava are discharged, so the core  could not be sustained by nuclear dynamo-process, there's no radiation to speak of. All volcanic discharge (lava, gases, etc) contain crude oil, and natural gas residue

Volcanoes, and Super volcanoes terraformed this planet billions of years ago by the release of oxygen, and other gases into Earth's atmosphere.  The burning of O&G in the lower  mantle supplies volcanic pressure. All gases in Earth's atmosphere originated from within the mantle of this planet, and are separated according to their atomic weight within earth's atmosphere. The gases discharged from volcanoes are trapped in Earth's atmosphere by the Earth's magnetic field, then life was brought to this planet such as plants, insect, animals, then humans. None of these species can survive without oxygen.

The principal components of volcanic gases are made up of  crude oil, and natural gas by-products: 

 high pressures,  high temperatures, water vapor (H2O), oxygen (O2), carbon dioxide (CO2), sulfur dioxide (SO2), hydrogen sulfide (H2S),   nitrogen, argon, helium, neon, methane, carbon monoxide and hydrogen. Other compounds detected in volcanic gases are  (meteoric), hydrogen chloride, hydrogen fluoridehydrogen bromide, nitrogen oxide (NOx), sulfur hexafluoride, carbonyl sulfide, and organic compounds. Exotic trace compounds include methylmercury, halocarbons (including CFCs), and halogen oxide radicals. Low levels of benign radiation.

Crude oil, and Natural Gas by-Products: Carbon dioxide, Sulfur Dioxide, Carbon Monoxide, Nitrogen Oxide, and all oxides/oxidizer contains oxygen. All of these oxidizers are components of crude oil, and natural gas, so combustion of crude oil, and natural gas in the mantle is possible. 

Oxidizer: a compound in which oxygen is bonded to one or more 

electropositive atoms. Any compound of oxygen with another element. 
Oxygen is just one of any gases within the mantle of this  planet, and is released into the earth's atmosphere during volcanic activity.

The lower mantle is not a Nuclear Reactor: Small amounts of  low levels benign non-fission isotopes are discharged from volcano such as unenriched: Uranium-238, plutonium-238, radium-226, potassium-40, thorium-232, polonium-210, Carbon -14, etc. The radiation levels of the isotopes are not suitable for fission, or fusion reactors. The high temperature in the core is not sustained by a nuclear dynamo-process. The core uses crude oil, and natural gas to generate heat, and pressure. There is no enriched radioactive isotopes in the core capable of fission. The lower mantle is not a fusion reactor. If the high temperatures in the lower mantle was sustain by nuclear fission, or nuclear dynamo process large amounts of hazardous, and/or lethal radiation would be discharge during volcanic eruptions instead of the non-hazardous radiation discharged form volcanoes.
_ ________________________________
Earth's core, and Nuclear Radiation


(1). O&G wells are the earth’s fuel system. The Earth fuel system operates on heat, and pressure. O&G wells are located all around the planet for even heating of the low mantle, and outer core. O&G wells forces crude oil, and natural gas down into the  mantle,  where it is ignited by the high residual temperatures in the lower mantle, where it enters the lower mantle as flame, heat, and pressure. The mantle is saturated with oxygen, and other gases, so the combustion of crude oil, and natural gas in the mantle is possible.

(2)The lower mantle, and core are the Earth’s engine. The Earth's core generates the Earth's EMGE. The Earth is an electromagnetic, gravitational generator, and biosphere.

(3). Volcanoes are the earth's exhaust system. Any device, or machine that utilizes O&G needs an exhaust system. Volcanoes remove spent fuel, and they regulate the pressure in the crust, and mantle. The burning of O&G supplies volcanic heat, and pressure. Volcanoes, and super volcanoes terraformed Earth's atmosphere by the release of air/oxygen, and other gases such as crude oil, and natural gas by-product into the atmosphere, which was stored in earth's mantle. The terraforming of earth's atmosphere was completed before the existence of plants, insects, animals, and humans on this planet. None of these life forms can survive without air/oxygen.

(4). The oceans are the Earth's cooling system.
Without the oceans the Earth's core would have burn its way through the body of this planet to the surface long ago.

(5). Plants can't create, or manufacture air, or oxygen. Plants absorbs carbon dioxide, and other gases, and  release the oxygen, but there has to be carbon dioxide, and other gases, and oxygen already present. All gases (oxygen) in Earth's atmosphere originated form the lower mantle.


The oil, and gas (O&G) extraction process used by the oil companies prevents O&G from being forced into the  mantle to be ignited by the lower mantle's residual high temperatures, thereby lowering the pressures in crude oil, natural gas wells, and lowering the temperature, and pressure in the mantle. The O&G enter into the lower mantle as flames, heat, and pressure, thereby heating, and pressurizing the mantle, and lower mantle, which heats the inner core, and the inner core generates earth's EMGE. 
The ignition of oil, and gas are responsible for violent volcanic eruptions, and earthquakes in the upper crust. The low levels of benign non-fission nuclear isotopes can't generate heat, nor pressure without being enriched, but crude oil, and natural gas can. The earth's magnetic, and gravitation field are made up of electrons, protons, and neutrons, and these element has mass.

The lack of O&G into the lower mantle causes the core to cool, and the pressure to drop, and weakens the earth's magnetic field, and gravitational field. Volcanic eruptions are more mild, and occur with more irregularity, than volcanic eruptions in the past. Earth's EMGE are weakening, causing the earth orbit around the sun to destabilize. If the earth magnetic, and gravitational field isn’t stabilize the earth’s orbit around the sun will continue to destabilize. The earth is a magnetic, and gravitational field generator. The earth's magnetic, and gravitational fields, and its orbital velocity around the sun are the mechanisms that keep the earth in a stable orbit around the sun.

 The earth’s lower mantle is being fuel starved from the lack of crude oil, and natural gas, which is causing the temperature, and the pressure in the  mantle, lower mantle , and outer core to drop. As the core cools, and pressure drops the earth’s EMGE will weakens. This is causing the earth's orbit around the sun to destabilize. The high temperature, and pressure in the earth’s mantle is not sustained by decaying nuclear isotopes, or by a nuclear dynamo process. nuclear activity can't generate pressure directly, unless its explodes. The radiation would be so pervasive in the lower mantle, and outer core that it would have made its way to the surface of this planet via volcanic eruptions long ago, and kill all life, and contaminate the air, the water ways, and the land surrounding all volcanoes with deadly radiation. Radiation is deadly to life on this planet, and is absorbed by all elements. Only low level benign non-fission isotopes are discharged from volcanoes. The radiation levels are so small, no radiation protection garments are needed when scientists come in contact with lava, and gases discharged from volcanoes. There has never been any dangerous radioactive fall out from volcanic eruptions. 

How to Reverse Earth's destabilizing, and Decaying orbit around the sun

The only way to reverse global warming is for the oil companies to return the crude oil, and gas back into the ground, and re-pressurize the earth’s fuel systems, because the crude oil, and natural gas extraction process used by the oil companies reduces O&G volumes, and the pressure in crude oil, and natural gas wells (fuel systems).
The more oil, and gas that are forced into the lower mantle the higher the temperature, and pressure in the mantle, and outer core, the stronger the earth's EMGE, and the stronger volcanic eruption. When a oil, and gas well becomes over pressurized in the crust an earthquake is generated. The less oil, and gas forced into the lower mantle the lower the temperature, pressure, and the weaker the earth's EMGE, and the weaker volcanic eruptions. Earthquakes are caused by excess pressure in the crust, and mantle. There are only two forces in the crust, and mantle that's heat, and pressure.


The core is cooling slowly, because the core is receiving less fuel, and is surrounded by the best insulation known to man, and that is rock, and soil. It will take many decades for the lower mantle to cool, and to reheat the outer core, and many more centuries to reheat the inner core to normal temperatures. Restoring earth's fuel system back to normal pressures will stabilize earth's orbit around the sun, and If not done in time all life on this planet will perish.


(1). A Breach has developed in Earth'sMagnetic Field:


2.  Dr. Tony Phillips. "Giant Breach in Earth's Magnetic Field Discovered." Science@ NASA. December 16, 2008.

3. The unification theory:

(2). Earth's magnetic, Electromagnetic (ionosphere), and Gravitational fields are weakening

1. Carrigan, C.R. and David Gubbins, "The Source of the Earth's Magnetic Field," SciAmer., Feb. 1979, p. 125.

2. McDonald, K.L. and R.H. Gunst, Earth's Magnetic Field 1835 to 1965, ESSA Tech. Rept. U.S. Dept. Com., 1967, pp. 1 & 5.

3. Lamb, H., Phil. Trans., London V. 174, 1883, pp. 519-549.

4. Barnes, T.G., Creation ResearchSociety Quarterly, Vol. 9 (1), 1972, pp. 

    Dehant V
  1. Creager K
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  3. Zatman S
, eds (2003Earth’s Core: Dynamics, Structure, and RotationGeodynamic Series 31 (American Geophysical UnionWashington DC), p 277.

    6. Gubbins
  1. Bloxham 
(1987Morphology of the geomagnetic field and implications for the geodynamoNature 325:509511.

(3). Magnetic, Electromagnetic (ionosphere), and Gravitational fields are similar energies. One can't exist without the other:

1. Dumberry M (2010) Gravity variations induced by core flows. Geophys J Int



3. Heaviside, O., "A Gravitational and Electromagnetic Analogy," The Electrician, 31, 281-282 and 359 (1893).

4.  Forward, R.L., "Guidelines to Antigravity," American Journal of Physics, 31, 166-170 (1963).

5.  Forward, R.L., "Guidelines to Antigravity," American Journal of Physics, 31, 166-170 (1963).

6.  Braginski, V.B., Caves, C.M., Thorne, K.S., "Laboratory Experiments to Test Relativity Gravity," Physical Review D, 15(5), 2047-2068 (1977).

7. Baker, Robert Jr., High Frequency Gravity Waves, Max Planck Institute, Munich, Germany, 2002.

8. Cooke, N., The Hunt for Zero Point, Broadway Books, New York, 2001, pp. 182-184, 100-101, 103, 194, 230-231, 103, 260-267.

9. de Aquino, Fran, Gravitational Radiation and Oscillating Dipole, Jean-Louis Naudin Labs, France, 2002

(4). Earth's Geographical poles are shifting:

1. Nature: Chen, J. L.Wilson, C. R.Ries, J. C. & Tapley, B.D. Geophys.Res.Lett. (2013).

2. NATURE/ doi:10.1038/nature.2013.129941

(5). Chandler's Wobble, and the Earth's Geographical poles are one in the same, and are Progressively Shifting:

1. See, e.g., Fig. 2.3. Virtanen, H. (2006). A studies of earth's dynamics with superconducting gravime Academic Dissertation at the University of Helsinki. Retrieved September 21, 2009. Gross, Richard S. (2000). "The Excitation of the Chandler Wobble"Geophysical Research Letters 27 (15): 2329–2332. Retrieved January 17, 2011.

2.  Gibert, D. and J.-L. Le Mou¨el, Inversion of polar motion data: Chandler wobble, phase jumps, and geomagnetic jerks, J. Geophys. Res., 113, B10405, 2008.

3. Chandler Wobble: Fedorov, E. P. and , Ya. S. Yatskiv, The cause of the apparent “bifurcation” of the free nutation period, Soviet Astron., 8, 608–611, 1965 Chandler Wobble: Two More Large Phase Jumps Revealed

5.  Guinot, B., Astron. Astrophys., The Chandlerian Wobble from 1900 to 1970, 19, 207–214,1972, Chandler, S. C., On the variation of the latitude, I, Astron. J., 11, 59–61, 1891a.

6. World Data Center forGeomagnetism, Kyoto"Magnetic North, Geomagnetic and Magnetic Poles". Retrieved 2012-07-03. North Magnetic Pole Moving East Due to Core Flux, National Geographic, December 24, 2009, University of Leicester (UK): Vladimir Shaidurov of the Academy of Science (Russia)

7. Environmental Protection Agency: The Natural Resources Defense Council:

(6). The Earth's rotation is slowing down: 

1. Climate Dynamics Volume 19, Issue 5-6 , pp 467-483;DOI: 10.1007/s00382-002-0238-8

2.ScienceVol. 157 no. 3786 pp. 304-305. DOI: 10.1126/science.157.3786.304

3. Morrison, L.V. and Ward, C. G., "An analysis of the transits of Mercury: 1677-1973", Mon. Not. Roy. Astron. Soc., 173, 183-206, 1975.

4. Dickey, J.O., "Earth Rotation Variations from Hours to Centuries", in: I. Appenzeller (ed.), Highlights of Astronomy: Vol. 10 (Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht/Boston/London, 1995), pp. 17-44.

5. Meeus, J., "The Effect of Delta T on Astronomical Calculations", Journal of the British Astronomical Association, 108 (1998), 154-156.

6. Morrison, L.V. & Stephenson, F.R., "Historical Values of the Earth's Clock Error Delta T and the Calculation of Eclipses", Journal for the History of Astronomy, Vol. 35 Part 3, August 2004, No. 120 (2004), pages 327-336.

(7).  Moon's orbit around the earth is destabilizing



(8). There's Oxygen In The Mantle. the combustion of oil, and gas is possible:

1. Alfe, DGillan, MJPrice, GD; (2007) Temperature and composition of the Earth's core. CONTEMP PHYS , 48 (2) 63 - 80. 10.1080/00107510701529653

3. Stagno VOjwang DOMcCammon CAFrost DJ 2013 Jan 3;493(7430):84-8. doi: 10.1038/nature11679.

4. Journal Of Geology,1989,Vol.97.P521-536

(9). Besides H2O, and O2 Volcanic gases are made up of crude oil, natural gas by-product, which means O&G is being burned in the mantle. 

1.. H. Sigurdsson et al. (2000) Encyclopedia of Volcanoes, San Diego, Academic Press

2.N. Morello (editor) (1998), Volcanoes and History, Genoa, Brigati

3. Royal Society Climate Change Controversies, London, June 2007

4. enneth A. McGee, and Terrence M. Gerlach 1995/ Volcanic Gas: USGS Open
files report -95-85, 2p.

6. Corsi, Dr. J. (2012.) The Great Oil Conspiracy–How the U.S. Government Hid the Nazi Discovery of Abiotic Oil from the American People. New York, N.Y: Skyhorse Publishing.

(10). Earth's core is not a reactor. nor is it's high temperatures sustained by decaying Isotopes. volcanoes would eject the decaying radioactive isotopes during eruptions.

1. Sanders, Robert (2003-12-10). "Radioactive potassium may be major heat source in Earth's core". UC Berkeley News. Retrieved 2007-02-28.

2. Johnston, Hamish (19). "Radioactive decay accounts for half of Earth's heat" Institute of Physics

 3. Nature Geoscience 10.1038/ngeo1205.


(11). The Earth's core is cooling, and this process is accelerating.

1. Bullen, K. E., 1960. In press and personal communication. 

2. Carlson, C. M., Eyring, H. & Taikyue Ree, 1960. Proc. Nut. Acad. Sci., 46,649. 

3. Bullen, K. E., 1960. In press and personal communication.

4. Monnereau, Marc; Calvet, Marie; Margerin, Ludovic; Souriau, Annie (May 21, 2010). "Lopsided Growth of Earth's Inner Core". Science328 (5981): 1014–1017. Bibcode:2010Sci...328.1014Mdoi:10.1126/science.1186212PMID 20395477

5.  E. R. Engdahl; E. A. Flynn and R. P. Massé (1974). "Differential PkiKP travel times and the radius of the core". Geophys. J. R. Astr. Soc.40 (3): 457–463. Bibcode:1974GeoJI..39..457Edoi:10.1111/j.1365-246X.1974.tb05467.x.

6. Edmond A. Mathez, ed. (2000). EARTH: INSIDE AND OUT. American Museum of Natural History.

7. John C. Butler (1995). Class Notes - "The Earth's interior." Physical Geology Grade BookUniversity of Houston. Retrieved 30 August 2011.

8. Gilvarry, J., 1957. J. Atm. Tm. Phys., 10, 84-95. 

9. Knopoff, L. & Macdonald, G. J. F., 1960. Geophys. J., 3, 68-77. 

10. Reed, G. W., 1959, in Researches in Geochemistry (edit. by P. H. Abelson) (Wiley, 

11. Salter, L., 1954. Phil. Mag., 45, 369-378. 

12. Simon, F., 1953. Nature (Lond.), 172,746. 

13. Strong, H. M., 1959. J. Geophys. Res., 64, 653-660. 

14. Strong, H. M., 1960. Amer. Scientist, 48, 58-79. 

15. Urey, H. C., 1952. The Planets (Yale Univ. Press, New Haven). 

(12). Earthquakes are Generated by the 

ignition of natural gas, which Generates 

excess pressure in the crust. The 

earthquakes generated by fracking 

backs this theory:

1. Ellsworth, W. L. Science 341, 1225942 (2013).

2. van der Elst, N. J., Savage, H. M., Keranen, K. M. & Abers, G. A. Science 341, 164–167 (2013).

3. Brodsky, E. E. & Lajoie, L. J. Science (2013)

5.  Brodsky, E. E. & Lajoie, L. J. Science (2013).

6.van der Elst, N. J.Savage, H. M.Keranen, K. M. & Abers, G. A. Science 341164167 (2013).

Ellsworth, W. L. Science 341, 1225942 (2013).

(13). The Sun is Responsible for Rise in Surface Temperatures: Please Copy, and Paste to Browser. Do not click on.

(14)The Kibo ice cap, a "poster child" of global climate change, is being starved of snowfall and depleted by solar radiation



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     .Gaffen, D. J., B. D. Santer, J. S. Boyle, J. R. 2. Christy, N. E. Graham and R. J. Ross. 2000. Multidecadal changes in the vertical temperature structure of the tropical troposphere. Science 287:1242-1245.

       .Kaser, G. 1999: A review of modern fluctuations of tropical glaciers. Global and Planetary Change 22 (1-4):93-103.

3. Kaser, G., D. R. Hardy, T. Mölg, R. S. Bradley and T. M. Hyera. 2004. Modern glacier retreat on Kilimanjaro as evidence of climate change: observations and facts. International Journal of Climatology 24:329-339. doi: 10.1002/joc.1008

4. Mölg, T., D. R. Hardy and G. Kaser. 2003. Solar-radiation-maintained glacier recession on Kilimanjaro drawn from combined ice-radiation geometry modeling. Journal of Geophysical Research 108(D23):4731. doi:10.1029/2003JD003546

5. Mölg, T., and D. R. Hardy, 2004. Ablation and associated energy balance of a horizontal glacier surface on Kilimanjaro. Journal of Geophysical Research 109:D16104.

6. Oerlemans, J. 2005. Extracting a climate signal from 169 glacier records. Science 308:675-677.

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